Introduction to immunology

    • Immunology is an extension JC2 topic in H2 BIOLOGY in A levels. This is a new topic students see in exams for the first time in 2017. It is about the various aspects of how humans use innate or develop adaptive responses to any foreign bodies, as well as how each of these elements cross talk with the other. Specifically, the various branches of adaptive immunity and how it works which includes antibody structure and function. Finally, how knowledge of immunology can apply to applications such as vaccination in order to reduce infectious disease spread.

    A selection of materials for immunology

    Most common phrasing errors students commit during exams

    • Lymphocytes produce antibodies
    • After the first exposure to a pathogen, the innate immunity develops memory
    • Tc cells kills intracellular viruses by causing the infected host cells to burst and die
    • The same V and J gene segments codes for heavy and light chain variable domains, in addition, D gene segments also code for heavy chain
    • Innate and adaptive immunity works separately, whilst innate immunity contributes to primary response and the adaptive immunity contributes to secondary response

    Exam tips

    • Somatic hypermutation ≠ somatic recombination
    • T and B cells/lymphocytes can be used interchangeably
    • Lymphocyte activation ≠ proliferation ≠ effector function
    • Primary & secondary immune responses ≠ primary & secondary lymphoid organs and tissues

    BYang’s tough questions bank

    • Vaccinations may be used for diseases other than infections, name a situation where this may occur as well as including what it should comprise of. [2m. Created 20200930]
    • There is a tremendous pressure on the evolution of adaptive immunity of an individual. Explain why this contradicts divergent evolution and why this contradiction is possible. [10m. Created 20200930]
    • If you like to have the answer, pls head over to my YouTube channel, subscribe and leave a comment that you want the answers in any of the videos!

    Questions and other matters

    • JOIN my classes so that you can get answers to your questions. You will also be able to access TYS questions from different JCs in Singapore as well as my comments and answers.
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    • You may also be interested to know how to boost your performance for A levels.