Introduction to cell signalling

    • Cell signalling is a core JC2 topic in H2 BIO A levels. This is the mechanism to which cells communicate with one another within a multi-cellular organism. The process starts with reception, signal transduction and subsequently response. And Consequently, how negative feedback shuts down the response afterwards. One have to understand and integrate the processes using the example of blood glucose levels control by insulin and glucagon.
    • This is an important topic that builds on earlier topics such as control and organization of eukaryotic genome, even (surprisingly) stem cells as well as biomolecules.

    A selection of materials for cell signalling

    • 👆🏻 explaining diabetes and its solution using the concepts of cellular respiration
    • Video animating GPCR in action
    • Download diagrams (high resolution) – FREE!
    • Purchase notes (including phrasing error corrections & review question solutions) for cell signalling

    Most common phrasing errors made by students during exams

    • Glucagon activates glycogen phosphorylase, insulin activates glycogen synthase
    • Signal amplification is when 1 signal molecule can trigger many different reactions in a cell at the same time
    • When G-protein is activated, it changes conformation, resulting in hydrolysis/conversion/phosphorylation of GDP to GTP

    Exam tips

    • Adenylyl cyclase (US) = adenyl cyclase (UK) = adenylate cyclase (chemists)
    • There are many types of RTKs. If given a diagram, adapt your answers according to the diagram given
    • Relate the structure of GPCRs to their function; think of what is important about them structurally and correspond that to a specific function e.g. tertiary structure of the extracellular domain creates a specific 3D conformation which allows for binding to specific ligands etc

    BYang’s tough questions bank

    • When gymmers lift weights to failure, the most frequent explanation is the depletion of muscle glycogen. This is unlikely to be the explanation because resting for a few minutes and without eating to replenish glycogen, the lifting can still resume. Considering that the generation of ATP crucial for muscle contraction involves numerous enzymes, suggest the most likely causal factor for muscle failure and provide a potential mechanism to explain the phenomenon. [4m. Created 211005]
    • If you like to have the answer, pls head over to my YouTube channel, subscribe and leave a comment that you want the answers in any of the videos!

    Questions and other matters

    • JOIN my classes so that you can get answers to your questions. You will also be able to access TYS questions from different JCs in Singapore as well as my comments and answers.
    • You can also register for my H2 BIO crash courses to get ready for exams. Here’s the SCHEDULE.
    • You may also be interested to know how to boost your performance for A levels.