1. Introduction to cell signalling
    • Cell signalling is a core JC2 topic in H2 BIO A levels. This is the mechanism to which cells communicate with one another within a multi-cellular organism. The process starts with reception, signal transduction and subsequently response. Once the response is effected, negative feedback shuts it down. In order to fully understand the process, use the example of blood glucose levels controlled by insulin and glucagon.

  2. Curated materials to help you

  3. Most common phrasing errors made by students during exams
    • Glucagon activates glycogen phosphorylase, insulin activates glycogen synthase
    • Signal amplification is when 1 signal molecule can trigger many different reactions in a cell at the same time
    • When G-protein is activated, it changes conformation, resulting in hydrolysis/conversion/phosphorylation of GDP to GTP

  4. Exam tips
    • Adenylyl cyclase (US) = adenyl cyclase (UK) = adenylate cyclase (chemists)
    • There are many types of RTKs. If given a diagram, adapt your answers according to the diagram given
    • Relate the structure of GPCRs to their function; think of what is important about them structurally and correspond that to a specific function e.g. tertiary structure of the extracellular domain creates a specific 3D conformation which allows for binding to specific ligands etc

  5. Questions
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