Introduction to stem cells

    • This is a core JC1 topic in H2 BIO A levels. This topic explores how some of the cells of a multi-celllar organism take on the special role of tissue renewal in addition to self-renewal. It also describes the 3 specific stem cell types, their definitions as well as ethical issues of their usage in science and medicine.

    A selection of materials for this topic

    Most common phrasing errors students commit during exams

    • Stem cells divide extensively
    • Stem cells proliferate and differentiate by mitosis
    • When somatic cells are injured, stem cells repair damaged cells
    • Stem cells are unspecialised cells that differentiate to specialized cells, in the process they lose genes that have no function in these cells

    Exam tips

    • Differentiation ≠ cell division
    • Self-renewal ≠ tissue renewal
    • Ethical implications are fairly open-ended so long as you present coherent points, it will be accepted but don’t just state without elaboration!
    • Do not answer questions on ethical implications with a series of unanswered questions. E.g. what if patient didn’t know…?

    Questions and other matters

    • JOIN my classes so that you can get answers to your questions. You will also be able to access TYS questions from different JCs in Singapore as well as my comments and answers.
    • You can also register for my H2 BIO crash courses to get ready for exams. Here’s the SCHEDULE.
    • You may also be interested to know how to boost your performance for A levels.