Introduction to infectious diseases

    • Infectious diseases is an extension JC2 topic in H2 BIOLOGY in A levels. This is a new topic students see in exams for the first time in 2017. It extents upon concepts in J1 of both HIV and influenza virus seen in J1 as well as adding Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The topic investigates how these pathogens can cause disease and how the host immune system responds.

    A selection of materials for infectious diseases

    Most common phrasing errors students commit during exams

    • Penicillin inhibits bacterial cell wall
    • Disseminated tuberculosis is the spread of tubercle to the rest of the body
    • Semi-synthetic penicillins are completely different from the natural penicillins and are therefore resistant to penicillinase

    Exam tips

    • Antibiotics ≠ antiviral drugs
    • You can use Tubercles and granulomas interchangeably
    • When describing the infections of HIV and Influenza virus for the new syllabus, remember to include details of the immune system

    BYang’s tough questions bank

    • Explain why penicillin, when it was first secreted by the fungus is not universally effective against bacteria. In addition, explain why it may not work against a susceptible bacteria. [4m. Created 201006]
    • Explain why viral antigenic drift is not always productive and why this phenomenon, as well as mutations that reduce immune recognition does not completely prevent the virus from continuing to use the host for its reproductive cycle. In addition, identify and describe a process in the adaptive immune response that corresponds to the viral antigenic drift. [10m. Created 220518]
    • If you like to have the answer, pls head over to my YouTube channel, subscribe and leave a comment that you want the answers in any of the videos!

    Questions and other matters

    • JOIN my classes so that you can have your questions answered. You will also be able to access TYS questions from different JCs in Singapore as well as my comments and recommended answers.
    • You can also register for my H2 BIO crash courses to get ready for exams. Here’s the SCHEDULE.
    • You may also be interested to know how to boost your performance for A levels.