MAMMALIAN CELL DIVISION [TOPIC GUIDE]
Introduction to mammalian cell division
- Mammalian cell division is a core JC1 topic in H2 BIO A levels. This topic traces all the events leading up to cytokinesis. And it results in 2 daughter cells after each division in both mitosis and meiosis. One should focus onthe differences between the 2 types of cell division as well as proper phrasing exactly describing the processes.
Useful study resources for mammlian cell division
Most common phrasing errors made by students during exams
- A pair of bivalents
- Diploid number = amount of DNA
- Crossing over results in new alleles/genes formed
- In meiosis II, the 2 sister chromatids are not identical to each other
- An organism is sterile because its gametes have non-homologous chromosomes
- Chromosomes are pulled to the opposite ends of the cells by spindle fibers
- DNA replication happens in the interphase between meiosis I and II
- Chromosomes replicate during interphase
- Centromeres split during anaphase
- Sister chromatids separate to become individual chromatids
- Random orientation/random alignment of homologous chromosomes at metaphase followed by random separation of homologous chromosomes at anaphase I leads to random assortment
- Crossing over results in the exchange of genes/part of gene/part of allele/gene loci/gene contents/genetic material/DNA content/genetic information between non-sister chromatids
- Cell cycle ≠ cell division
- Microtubules ≠ spindle fibre/microtubules ≠ mitotic spindle
- A diploid cell already becomes haploid at the end of meiosis I
- Synapsis is the process of pairing up homologous chromosomes. It has to occur first before crossing over can occur. Synapsis is not crossing over
- When given a graph and asked to identify the various stages of cell nuclear division, take note of what the y axis is referring to: amount of DNA or number of chromosomes per cell or per nucleus
- Centromeres do not interact with the spindle microtubules directly but to kinetochore proteins that are attached to the centromere
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